Category Archives: Recipes

Extend your pepper season and preserve peppers

Last night at about 11:30 Ken alerted me that the forecasted low for our area was 36 degrees, meaning that we could easily get a light frost.  At midnight the two of us headed out to our gardens with a flashlight to cover our pepper trials, two of our pepper seed crops, and our purple hyacinth bean seed crop with tarps and garden blankets that had been left next to the crops since the last time we had a risk of frost.

Pepper plants in our trial pepper patch. One of the tarps we used to cover the patch is behind the plants.

I also turned on a sprinkler to water our Keystone Resistant Giant pepper seed crop and our Riesentraube tomato seed crop overnight. Contrary to most people’s intuition, a sprinkler can protect plants from a few degrees of frost if it is turned on before the temperature gets below 32 degrees and not turned off until after it gets above 32 again.

A few pepper plants, as well as what remains of our basil, squash, gourds, and beans, were left unprotected, as were most of our remaining tomatoes.  This morning at 8:00 I took a quick walk to see what was dead and what was alive.  I was sad to find abundant evidence of frost in the garden, including that the leaves of our Joe’s Round pepper plants were stiff with ice where they hadn’t been covered.  Our basil was also stiff, and it’s even a little more tender than most frost-tender crops. However, when I checked them again around noon, I found most of those leaves quite alive!  I’m guessing this means that dew on leaves of even very frost-tender plants can freeze without necessarily harming the leaves themselves.  We’ll probably get another good seed harvest from each of our pepper seed crops, and then, around the time of our first killing frost, a big harvest of green peppers for eating. Green peppers don’t have mature enough seed to expect a good germination rate.

Peppers can be slow to come into production, but once they do, they bear prolifically. The fruits keep well on the plants, and in your root cellar or fridge. They are also easy to preserve… more on that below.  So, abundant fall pepper harvest are generally well worth the effort of covering the plants on the first few frosty nights.

Our habaneros were planted late and were slow to start producing, but now they are bearing especially prolifically.

Other frost-tender crops also benefit from covering, including eggplants, tomatillosbeans, cucumbers, and both summer and winter squash.  If you have a cucumber patch that’s still going strong in the days before your first frost, cover for harvest season extension.  However, many crops are harder to cover due to their height.  Also, cold weather and short days slow many of them down a lot.

Preserving peppers is easy, and you have lots of options:

– They freeze well. Unlike most vegetables, they don’t even if need to be blanched (flash-cooked) first. Just cut them into strips or squares, bag them in freezer bags from your local grocery store, and pop them in the freezer.

– We’ve made a delicious roasted red pepper spread. It can also be frozen, and takes up less freezer space than unblended peppers. Just roast peppers and garlic in the oven at about 350 degrees until soft, then thoroughly blend with olive oil, red wine vinegar, salt, and black pepper.

– Some of my friends absolutely love pickled hot peppers.  Lacto-fermented jalapeños have come out especially well for us.  You can also use them as seasoning in other ferments like kim chee.

Sliced red bell peppers with whole green hot peppers and coriander, almost ready for lacto-fermentation

– Dehydration is also a great option, especially if freezer space is scarce. If you have an electric food dehydrator, put at about 135 degrees. If you live in a dry climate, you can dry peppers outside, or string small, thin-skinned ones – like Aji Dulce (mild), Cayenne (hot), or Habanero (very hot) together and hang them in your kitchen or pantry to dry. On our farm, we dry peppers and other vegetables in our convection oven, set to the lowest possible temperature (about 160 degrees, actually lower than the lowest listed temperature on the dial). Dehydrated veggetables are best stored in airtight containers such as mason jars with two-piece lids.

– Homemade hot sauce is a great option.  Canning recipes abound.  Or, if you’d prefer to store your hot sauce in the refrigerator, you can forgo the recipe entirely and experiment with the ingredients you happen to have on hand.

– Hot pepper jam is a favorite of many, and sweet pepper jam is a great option, too.  One of the best jams I’ve made was tomatillos with a touch of Jalapeño peppers, at the rate of about one deseeded pepper per pint.  If I hadn’t already known the hot peppers were in it, I wouldn’t have guessed.

Those tarps and garden blankets will likely come in handy again later in the fall and in the winter, for covering greens on very cold nights.  For more on what fall and winter crops survive down to what temperatures, see our Fall and Winter Gardening Quick Reference.

Winter Squash as Summer Squash

Your winter squash plants may be ready to provide you with a second vegetable you didn’t expect – summer squash.  Last year we cut up, stir-fried and ate a young, tender fruit from our friends’ seed crop of Seminole winter squash.  It was delicious, with an agreeable texture, and a rich, buttery taste.  Then we harvested several young squash from our winter squash variety trials, and they all tasted similarly great!  In fact, they tasted better than most summer squash do!  It can be a challenge to find the young squash under the large green leaves and sprawling vines; however, if you plan ahead, small-fruited varieties of squash can be trellised, making it easier to find the young fruits.

Young Seminole winter squash cooked as a summer squash

Growing regular summer squash can be easy, but in many parts of the Southeast, the plants are susceptible to squash vine borers, which can kill a previously healthy plant in a day.  Thus many gardeners and organic farmers get abundant harvests for a period of time, and then little or even nothing.  Luckily there are several ways of dealing with this problem.  However, at this point in the year, if you’ve neither planted successions, nor meticulously pulled vine borer larvae out with tweezers, you might or might not have a lot of summer squash plants left.

Four types of squash in the moschata species, harvested young and ready to be cooked as summer squash

Squash varieties fall into four main species – pepo, maxima, moschata, and argyosperma. Moschatas and argyospermas are resistant to squash vine borers. Pepos and maximas are susceptible.  Most summer squash are pepos, but many winter squash are moschatas.  One traditional summer squash, Tromboncino, is a moschata.  We list the species of each of our squash varieties just after the variety name.  You can also use edible gourds as a summer squash substitute.

The ways you can use a squash are endless, whether it’s mature or immature – and whether it’s a pepo or a moschata or another species.  You can stir-fry them with other vegetables, or by themselves.  You can deep-fry them or bake them.  You can turn them into soup.  You can stuff them.  You can grate them into a salad.  You can lacto-ferment them.  You can use them in sweet recipes  – use any of the immature ones like zucchini in zucchini bread, and use any of the mature ones like pumpkins in pumpkin pie.  You can cook the tender shoot tips as well as the fruits (though I found the long tendrils to be rather bitter and I would remove those next time).

Freshly harvested squash shoots
Squash shoots cooking with eggs

Perhaps around the time of frost you’ll find yourself harvesting a squash that’s too old to use quite like summer squash, and yet too young to cure and store like winter squash.  You can eat those too.  You’ll probably want to peel them first, and scoop out the seeds – the skin and seeds both generally get tough by intermediate stages of maturity.  Then, you can use them either in a winter squash recipe or in a summer squash recipe.

Singing the Praises of Butternut Squash

butternut squashbutterbush squash

by Debbie Piesen

Winter squash may be the perfect vegetable. It is easy to grow, stores well without processing, is tasty and nutritious. For seed growers like us at Living Energy Farm, winter squash has the added advantage of being a dual-purpose crop- we can save the seed while also enjoying the bounty of delicious food.

We grow all kinds of different squashes on our farm, but moschata type winter squashes are our favorite. Moschata is a species of squash that includes seminoles, butternuts, and some pumpkins. Moschatas do particularly well in the Southeast because they are resistant to insects and thrive on heat and humidity. One of our worst insect pests is the squash vine borer, which in a bad year can wipe out non-resistant varieties. The reason mochatas resist vine borers is that they have solid stems, unlike the hollow stems of pepo and maxima type squashes. With a moschata, the vine borer has no place to go!

Pictured, from left to right: top row: Butterbush, Nutterbutter, Waltham, Waltham Virginia Select; bottom row: Honey Nut, Metro PMR, Amber Delight

Among the moschatas, butternuts stand out as particularly productive and delicious. This year we were involved with trialing seven different butternut varieties- Waltham, Waltham Virginia Select, Metro PMR, Butterbush, Nutterbutter, Honey Nut, and Amber Delight. Waltham is the standard butternut squash for its medium-large size and good flavor, but Waltham Virginia Select, which will be offered by Southern Exposure starting next year, proved to be a considerable improvement over Waltham in productivity and disease resistance.

Our all-around favorite was Butterbush, which has exceptional flavor, early and uniform ripening, and a small seed cavity. This variety has compact and productive vines which are well suited to the home grower, who may have limited space.

In addition to being fun and easy to grow, butternuts are excellent keepers. Without canning or freezing, we enjoy our butternuts from harvest in September well into February and March. Good handling and storage technique starts at harvest time. Ideally, harvest your butternuts when you have a week of warm clear weather. Choose fruits that are fully mature and unblemished for storage. Immature or damaged fruits, or fruits missing their stems, will wrinkle or rot more quickly in storage and should be eaten first. Start by clipping the fruits off the vines, leaving at least an inch of stem, and turning the fruits so the stem is exposed to sun and wind. Leave the fruits in the field, or move to a sunny spot, to cure for at least a week. The curing process dries out the stem and draws moisture from the squash, which hardens the rind and helps prevent rot during storage. If the weather is cool or wet when you harvest, squashes can be cured in an indoor space at 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit.

Once the squashes are cured, pack them gently into a box or bin, being careful to avoid puncturing the skin. You don’t need a root cellar to store winter squash; in fact, they do better with warmer temperatures and medium humidity. They should not freeze- 50 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit is ideal- but we find that in Virginia butternuts do fine in unheated outdoor buildings like sheds and barns until the weather turns really cold in late December or January. After that, a basement or cool room in the house works nicely.

Our favorite way to eat butternuts is to slice them in half lengthwise, coat them with oil, sprinkle the halves with cinnamon or savory herbs, and bake them at 350 degrees for about an hour. Some folks like to add a little molasses or honey, but some varieties like Butterbush don’t need the extra sweetness, they taste better without it.

And nothing says winter in our kitchen like a warm, hearty squash soup. We sometimes make squash soup from the frozen purees we’ve put up from our fall pumpkins, which are not good keepers. But using storage squashes like butternuts works well too, and many of us – myself included – prefer the flavor to pumpkins. Here is our favorite squash soup recipe. The quantities have been left out because it works for many different amounts of vegetables, as long as there’s plenty of squash!

Butternut squash
onions or leeks
celery or celeriac
grated ginger
salt and pepper

Bring a large saucepan full of water to boil for stock. While the water is heating, slice open the squash(es) lengthwise. Scoop out the seeds and pulp into the saucepan. Peel off the skin and add it to the saucepan. Cut the squash into one inch cubes and set aside. Slice, dice, or mince, according to your preference, the onions or leeks, celery or celeriac, and garlic. Add any trimmings to the stock pan. Keep the stock at a slow boil for at least one hour.

Coat a large heavy-bottomed pan with olive oil, put on medium heat. Add onions or leeks and cook until they begin to soften, then add the garlic, celery or celeriac, and squash. Cook for about ten minutes. Then add the stock through a strainer, adding extra boiling water if necessary to cover, and the grated ginger. Cook at a low boil for 30 minutes, until the squash is soft. Mash it all up or put through a blender. Add cream as desired, and salt and pepper to taste. Yum!

It’s easy to save seed from butternuts and other winter squash. Cultivation is much the same as growing these plants for food. Give them plenty of space and adequate water for quality seed. To maintain genetic vigor, save seed from a population of at least 10 to 20 plants. And be sure to provide at least a quarter mile of isolation distance from other varieties of the same species. (SESE recommends a quarter mile to one mile of isolation, depending on planting size.) Harvest when the fruits are completely mature. Signs of maturity are different in different varieties, but with butternuts look for fruits that are completely tan. Cut a few fruits open and check the seeds if you’re not sure; they should be plump.

To save the seed, cut the squashes in half with a small knife, trying not to cut through the seed cavity. Scoop out the seeds, pulp and all, into a bowl or bucket. Add a small amount of water, if necessary, so the seeds stay wet while they are fermenting. Let the seeds ferment for at least two days, stirring twice a day. The fermentation process controls some diseases and breaks down the pulp so it is easier to clean the seed. You may need to let them ferment for more than two days in cold weather. When the pulp is soft enough to slip easily from the seeds, add more water to the bowl or bucket. Most of the good seeds will sink, and most of the pulp and immature seeds will float. Pour off the pulp and immature seeds. Repeat to separate out more of the pulp and immature seeds, adding more water with each pour if necessary. Then pour out the good seeds onto a screen and put them in front of a fan to dry. After 5 to 7 days of drying, put the seeds in a jar and store them in a cool dry place until you’re ready to plant again in the spring!

Debbie Piesen has been working in organic agriculture for eight years, and has been growing organic vegetable seeds for Southern Exposure Seed Exchange for three years. She is currently the farm manager for Living Energy Farm, a community and environmental education center in Louisa, Virginia, that uses no fossil fuels. Living Energy Farm cultivates three acres of organic vegetables, grains and flowers for seed and market, and maintains five acres (and growing) of organic orchards.