Tag Archives: Herbs

Grow a Perennial Herb Garden

Having fresh herbs growing right out your door is fantastic for any food lover. They add so much flavor and save you money on expensive store-bought herbs.

Thankfully many great culinary and medicinal herbs are easy to grow perennials. Here’s how to start your own perennial herb garden.

Perennial Herbs

Here are a few of the perennial herbs you might consider adding to your garden.

  • Chives (Perennial in zones 3-10)
  • Sage (Perennial in zones 4-10)
  • Rosemary (Perennial in zones 7-10)
  • Lemon Balm (Perennial in zones 5-10)
  • Mint (Perennial in zones 5-10)
  • Oregano (Perennial in zones 5-10)
  • Anise Hyssop (Short-lived perennial)
  • Salad Burnet (Perennial in zones 4-10)
  • Fennel (Perennial in zones 6-10)
  • Bergamot (Perennial in zones 4-10)
  • Cranberry Hibiscus (Perennial in zones 9 and 10)
  • Lavender (Perennial in zones 5-10)
  • Sweet Marjoram (Perennial in zone 10)
  • Mexican Mint Marigold (Perennial in zones 8-10
  • Thyme (Perennial in zones 6-9)
  • Roselle (Frost-tender perennial)
  • Sorrel (Perennial in zones 4-10)
  • Echinacea (Perennial in zones 3-9)
  • Feverfew (Perennial in zones 4-10)
  • Catnip (Perennial in zones 4-10)
  • White Horehound (Perennial in zones 4-10)

Starting from Seed

You can start many perennial herbs from seed. However, some herbs can be trickier than vegetable crops. Be sure to read the growing instructions carefully. For example, lavender can take 30 days to germinate, echinacea requires cold stratification, and thyme germinates best between 55-60°F.

A few other tips:

  • For starting herbs indoors, be sure to use a well-draining potting mix.
  • To direct sow herbs, prepare your soil well. Add compost, fork, and rake the soil smooth.
  • Keep soil moist (a mister is great for small seeds) but not soggy.

Some perennial herbs are also easy to divide and transplant. If you know someone with a big patch of mint, lemon balm, thyme, chives, or oregano, ask if you can have a start.

Selecting a Garden Site

Generally, the best site for an herb garden is as close to your door as possible. Being able to quickly pop out to the garden and snag some fresh herbs will encourage you to use them.

Sunlight and drainage should also be considerations. Many herbs like rosemary and sage prefer full sun and well-drained soil. They may not thrive tucked away on the shady side of a home. However, some herbs like mint, bergamot, lemon balm, and chives will tolerate partial shade and thrive in moist soil.

Plant Care

While your herbs are getting established, it’s essential to water consistently. It’s best to water in the morning or evening. You should also keep them well-weeded. Even herbs as tough as mint can be overtaken by weeds when they’re first getting started. Mulching around them is a good idea.

Once your herbs start to take off, you may want to prune them a bit. When they grow above 8 inches, you can prune herbs’ tips like oregano, mint, rosemary, and sage to encourage root growth and bushier, fuller shape. Clip off the tops just above a set of leaves.

Harvest

Avoid harvesting until plants are displaying vigorous growth. They should be a least 6 inches tall and well established. You want them to become healthy plants for the long haul!

Never harvest more than 1/3 of a plant at a time and discontinue large harvests about one month before your first frost.

If you’re harvesting to dry herbs for storage, it’s ideal to do some around midsummer. This is when they’ll be the most potent and flavorful.

Check out these posts for advice on preserving and using medicinal and culinary herbs:

How to Properly Harvest & Preserve Herbs

5 Ways to Use and Preserve Herbs this Summer

 

5 Ways to Use and Preserve Herbs this Summer

Summer is the season of abundance. It’s easy to get busy weeding, harvesting, and putting up vegetables but it’s also the time to think about herbs. Summer is the time to use and preserve herbs for the rest of the year. Here are a few ways to put up an herbal harvest.

**We’re gardeners, not doctors. Please consult a physician about using herbal remedies especially if you’re nursing, pregnant, or on any medications.**

Herbal Teas

One of the easiest ways to preserve herbs is to dry them for tea. For best results check out our guide to harvesting & preserving herbs which you can find here. Here are just a few of the easy to grow herbs you can use for tea and their properties. For more ideas check out our medicinal herbs section.

Herb Part of plant Traditional Uses/Properties
Lemon Balm Leaves  Sedative, calmative, carminative, anti-viral
Echinacea Leaves, flowers, roots Immuno-stimulant, anti-viral, bacteriostatic
Calendula Flowers  Anti-inflammatory, soothes sore throats, soothes skin irritations when applied topically or added to a bath
Valerian Roots  Tranquilizer, calmative
Lavender Flowers Carminative, antidepressant, calming tonic for the nervous system
Roselle  Calyx Lowering blood pressure, anitmicrobial, diuretic, high in vitamin C
Skullcap Leaves, stems, flowers Nervine tonic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, used to revivify, calm, and nourish the nervous system
Chamomile Flowers Soothing, carminative, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-spasmodic, anti-microbial, can be used internally or for skin irritations
Mint Leaves Calming, spasmolytic, carminative, expectorant properties, used externally for skin irritations

Tinctures

Preparation

Many herbs can be easily processed into effective tinctures. Add clean chopped herbs (roots, leaves, stems, berries, and even bark depending on the plant) to a glass jar. Depending on the species, part of the plant, and whether it’s fresh you should fill the jar anywhere from 1/3 to 3/4 of the way full.

Cover with high-proof alcohol. Any will do but many people prefer vodka so the flavor of the herbs comes through. The jar should be fairly full of herbs but they should move freely when you shake it. Remember that dried material will expand once you add the alcohol.

Set the jar somewhere dark, cool, and dry for 6-8 weeks. Every few days give the jar a shake and check for evaporation. You may need to top off your jar to keep your herbs covered and prevent mold growth. After you can strain and bottle your tincture. It will last a long time as long as you keep it in a cool, dry, place. It’s a good idea to use a brown glass bottle to keep sunlight out.

This article from Mountain Rose Herbs is a great source for making tinctures.

Using Your Tincture

Many people take tinctures plain using an eyedropper. However, they can also be added to teas, seltzer water, or cocktails. When using tinctures it’s important to note that they’re more concentrated than an herbal tea.

Popsicles

Some herbal teas also make excellent popsicles. Try mixing lavender, lemon balm, mint, or roselle tea with honey or maple syrup and small pieces of fresh fruit to freeze for a refreshing treat.

You can use paper cups and popsicle sticks or find reusable molds at your grocery store or online. Some places carry stainless steel molds for those looking to avoid plastic.

 

 

 

 

Vinegars

Making herbal vinegars is a lot like making tinctures. They can be used medicinally and are excellent for homemade dressings and marinades. Garlic, chives, thyme, ginger, sage, hot peppers, turmeric, and nasturtiums are all excellent choices but you can use a variety of herbs, plants, and fruit to create your own unique flavor. You can also use a variety of kinds of vinegar like apple cider, champagne, rice, or red wine vinegar.

In a glass jar, mix about 1 cup of herbs to every 2 cups of vinegar. Don’t use a metal lid as the vinegar may corrode it. Leave in a cool, dry, dark place for up to a month for strong flavors, shaking it every few days. When the mixture has reached its desired flavor you can strain and bottle it.

Incense

Culturally incense is sometimes used for ceremonies or cleansing spaces and the mind. Even if incense isn’t part of your culture it can be a great way to make your home smell nice. Making your own incense can also allow you to enjoy the fragrances of your garden right through the winter!

This article by Rosalee de la Forêt at Learning Herbs has a wonderful tutorial to walk you through the process. You’ll need fragrant dried powdered herbs (like rosemary, lavender, or sage), a botanical gum (to glue the herbs together), and water.

Summer is a busy time for everyone but if you want to make the most of the herbs you grew it’s time to put up the harvest. Try one of these 5 awesome ways to use your herbs and let us know how it goes on Facebook. We’d love to see how your projects turn out!

Mighty Burdock

A Burdock—clawed my Gown—

Not Burdock’s—blame—
But mine—
Who went too near
The Burdock’s Den—

Emily Dickinson

Arctium-Lappa-Drawing-6-500x500

My second date with Hildegard in the herb garden had us digging up burdock. This time, I had done lots of homework beforehand, including reading up on burdock in Susun Weed’s fantastic book ‘Healing Wise’, and locating and digging some up on our farm. ‘Mighty Burdock’ is Weed’s moniker and she includes a charming section where the burdock plant talks to you like some tough guy with a kindly heart.

You’ve seen burdock, even if you didn’t know it. Huge, oblong leaves spreading out in a rosette close to the ground, and in the second year producing a tall flower stalk with smaller leaves that then makes obnoxious burrs in the fall that are the bane of dog and sheep owners. Burdock likes moist, rocky soil, and plenty of sun, and is a likely suspect on roadsides and unkempt meadows. The first year plants (it’s a biennial) look a lot like rhubarb.

burdock plant

When I arrived in Hildegard’s burdock patch, I was surprised to find that the plants were quite different from the ones I had dug up on our farm. Much bigger leaves (as much as 3 feet long!) and thicker stems. Turns out there are two primary species, Arctium lappa and Arctium minus, as well as a bunch of cross-breeds, but they’re all basically the same thing.  Her patch was extensive and impressive, though a number of the plants had gotten too moist in recent rains and the roots were rotten.

As with many useful herbs, different parts of the burdock are best harvested at different times. The leaves and stalks are good in the spring (though I found some of the stalks sweet and tasty even this late), while the roots are best gotten in the fall from 1st year plants, and the seeds are only to be had from 2nd year plants in the fall. I was also fascinated to learn that burdock has a rhythmic pattern which follows the moon: at the full moon more of its energies travel to the stalks and leaves, while during the new moon the roots are more potent. Since we were harvesting roots, we waited for the new moon.

burdock burr and root

roots and seed pods

The roots we pulled out had a delicious, earthy, turnipy smell, and to my delight they were very tasty raw. Since we had a lot, we took some of them in and cooked them in a bit of water. Even yummier! This is definitely something to keep in mind for fall root veggie dishes.

burdock and squash ferment

stewed burdock root and summer squash ferment

But what about the medicinal qualities of burdock? Turns out this is one of the heroes of the herbal medicine cabinet. Susun Weed tells us that it works the most on the lymph, sweat, and oil glands, but also on the liver, lungs, kidneys, stomach, uterus, and joints. It’s a nourishing tonic, so it’s a great thing to take now and then just to keep your whole system running smoothly. And it’s chock full of vitamins and minerals. Burdock is also great for skin care and wound healing, as well as cooling, both physical fevers and emotional heat. It’s only not recommended for people who are already prone to fatigue and cold.

burdock root sliced

sliced roots – interestingly different colours from different plants

Burdock has been a standby in the herbal repertoire of healers since the Middle Ages in Europe, when it was especially used as a diuretic and blood purifier. Chinese and Indian doctors have traditionally used it for chest conditions, such as colds and flus and coughs. Some Native American tribes (it seems to have been introduced with the first European settlers) made burdock root candy for the winter and used it for rheumatism and as a blood purifier. And the inventor of velcro was inspired by the hooks of the burdock burr! (more Burdock history here)

opening burdock burr

opening a burr to get the seeds out

Hildegard gave me seeds from one of her 2nd year plants, which I look forward to trying, following this advice from Gardnersnet.

I leave you with this recipe from the blog of Meghan Telpner:

Burdock Root Soup

1/2 cup burdock root, sliced
2 carrots, sliced
1 sweet potato, cut into 1/2 inch cubes
2 broccoli stalks, coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, sliced
1 cup or 1/4 cauliflower, coarsely chopped
1/3 cup fennel, sliced
2 beets, peeled and cut into 1/2 inch cubes
1/2 onion, chopped
1-2 inches of fresh ginger root, chopped fine
3 cloves garlic, chopped fine
2 tsp turmeric
2 tsp coriander, ground
2 tsp cumin seeds, ground
1 tsp cinnamon, ground
sea salt to taste

  • Dump all ingredients into a pot
  • Simmer for 30-45 mins
  • Leave chunky or blend. I left half chunky and blended the other half to make it creamy.